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.Y'Selma, Alab ama, marchThe campaign began in January, 1965.Each day1965: Mass demonstration planned by Martinwhen African Americans marched to Alabama sLuther King, Jr., to dramatize the demands ofDallas County Court House to register to vote, theyAfrican Americans for voting rights in thewere met with club-swinging state troopers onSouth.horseback who beat and arrested them.King him-After Congress passed the landmark Civil Rights self was among the demonstrators arrested.TheAct of 1964, the Civil Rights movement, under the decision to march from Selma to Montgomery, Ala-Alabama state troopers break up the civil rights march in Selma in March, 1965.(AP/WideWorld Photos)792 Separate-but-equal principlebama s capital, was in response to the shooting death Montgomery march finally got underway on Sun-of a black demonstrator in nearby Marion.Shot in the day, March 21.More than three thousand marchersstomach by a state trooper, Jimmie Lee Jackson died of all races and occupations moved along Route 80a week later.King wanted to march to Montgomery with armed troops standing at intervals along theto deliver a petition to Alabama governor George road.At night the marchers slept in tents theyWallace protesting Jackson s death and the arrest of pitched along the road.By the time they reachedmore than one thousand black demonstrators.Wal- the outskirts of Montgomery on the fourth day,lace issued an order prohibiting the march and gave their number had increased to twenty-five thou-state troopers the authority to use whatever measures sand.On Thursday, March 25, they reached thethey deemed necessary to prevent it.capital, where King addressed the crowd as mil-Bloody Sunday On Sunday, March 7, 1965, lions watched on television.demonstrators began what was to become the first The triumphant mood of the march was short-of three attempts to march to Montgomery.About lived, however.That same evening, four memberssix hundred African Americans, carrying bedrolls of the Ku Klux Klan shot and killed a whiteand knapsacks, stepped out of Brown Chapel Afri- woman, Viola Liuzzo, who was transporting march-can Methodist Episcopal Church in a long column ers from Montgomery back to Selma.Liuzzo s kill-for the four-day march to Montgomery, fifty miles ers were quickly arrested, and President Johnsonaway.The marchers were led by the SCLC s Hosea again went on national television to condemn theWilliams and SNCC s John Robert Lewis.That day shooting and call for an investigation of the Klan.King remained in Atlanta, Georgia, to minister to On Friday, August 16, five months after thehis congregation.Selma-to-Montgomery march, President JohnsonAs the marchers reached the crest of Selma s signed the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965 intoEdmund Pettus Bridge, they were met by state law.During the following year nine thousand Afri-troopers wearing helmets and gas masks.When the can Americans registered to vote in Alabama s Dal-marchers refused to turn back, the command to las County.attack was given.Many marchers turned and ran, toSUGGESTED READINGS:escape tear gas and lawmen charging against themon horseback with their nightsticks, chains, and Fager, Charles E.Selma, 1965: The March Thatelectric cattle prods.Changed the South.Boston: Beacon Press, 1985.Despite a temporary federal restraining order on Siegel, Beatrice.Murder on the Highway: The Violamarching, the civil rights demonstration this time Liuzzo Story.New York: Four Winds Press, 1993.led by King himself tried a second time on Tues- Vivian, Octavia, ed.HowWe Got over the Bridge today, March 9, to march to Montgomery.About a Freedom: Looking Back and Moving Forward, aquarter of a mile into the march King decided not Mini-History of the Voting Rights Struggle in theto proceed and led the marchers back to Brown Alabama Black Belt.Montgomery, Ala.: NationalChapel.That night three white Unitarian ministers Celebration of the Right to Vote Committee, 1990.were assaulted by local whites.Among the victims Wexler, Sanford.The Civil Rights Movement: Anwas the Reverend James J.Reeb, who died two Eyewitness History.New York: Facts on File,days later.Calling Reeb s death and the events in 1993.Selma an American tragedy, President Lyndon B. Eddith A.DashiellJohnson delivered a nationwide television addressto a joint session of Congress to request the pas-sage of a strict voting rights bill.Separate-but-equal principleY'-bu t-e qual p rin cipleS ep ara teOn Wednesday, March 17, a federal judge ruledConstitutional doctrine arising in 1896 thatthat the Selma-to-Montgomery march could pro-gave legal sanction to racial segregation soceed.Although the ruling cleared the way for thelong as the segregated races had access tomarch, Governor Wallace refused to provide thefacilities considered  equal.marchers with police protection.PresidentJohnson, therefore, federalized the Alabama Na- The abolition of slavery in the wake of the Civiltional Guard and ordered it to oversee the march.War did not produce equality for newly freed Afri-The March to Montgomery The Selma-to- can Americans.The South responded to the new-793 Serna v.Portalesfound freedom of African Americans by enforcing a principle.separation of whites and African Americans that  Timothy L.Hallwould maintain the perceived superiority of thewhite race.Although the Fourteenth Amendment sequal protection clause might have been thought Serna v.PortalesY'Serna v.Portalesof as abolishing precisely this kind of legally en-1974: Federal court decision affirming a bilin-forced inferior status, the U.S.Supreme Court origi-gual education policy in New Mexico.nally interpreted it otherwise.Responding to south-ern Jim Crow laws requiring segregated cars for In this decision a federal circuit court in Newwhites and blacks on railways, the Court ruled, in Mexico held that a school district was not meetingPlessy v.Ferguson (1896), that this segregation did the educational needs of its Mexican American pu-not offend the equal protection clause.Favored pils by failing to implement bilingual education andwith this blessing, southern states gradually ex- other programs designed to enhance educationalpanded the scope of segregation to include racial opportunities of Mexican-American children.separation across a wide range of social institu-  Marcia J.Weisstions.Jim Crow reigned in parks and golf courses,jails and prisons, film theaters and restaurants.Mostsignificantly, southern states enforced racial segre- Sex discriminationY'S ex discr imin ationgation in schools, colleges, and universities.Unequal treatment of persons on the basis ofThe separate-but-equal principle purported totheir sex.grant African Americans equal facilities, even thoughenforced separation branded them as socially inferior.Societies have long acknowledged that womenThe equality supposedly accorded African Americans and men are biologically different, and have conse-was often pure fiction, however.Especially in educa- quently given them different social, economic, andtional institutions, African Americans invariably suf- political rights and responsibilities.As Western so-fered inferior opportunities in inferior facilities.In cieties have become more sensitive to their ownsome contexts, such as graduate programs, southern violations of the rights of members of recognizablestates did not bother to create even inferior opportu- groups and categories of persons, many elementsnities for African Americans.Threatened with litiga- of the differential treatment of men and womention, states might respond, as Texas did with respect have become regarded as forms of sex discrimina-to the University of Texas Law School, by creating a tion.token professional program for African Americans.In The U.S.Constitution In 1787, when futureSweatt v [ Pobierz całość w formacie PDF ]