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.5.8Bailey, Leisure and Class, p.14.Malcolmson, Popular Recreations, pp.107–108, 224–5.D.Reid (1988) ‘Folk football, the aristocracy and cultural change’, IJHS, 5:2, 229.J.Walvin (1975) The People’s Game, London: Allen Lane, pp.26–7.9J.Clapham and M.Clapham (1934) ‘Life in the new towns’, in G.Young (ed.), Early Victorian England, Oxford: Oxford University Press, i, pp.230–31.Malcolmson, Popular Recreations, pp.98–9.Malcolmson, ‘Sport in society’, 62.M.Brooke Smith (1970) ‘The Growth and Development of Popular Entertainments and Pastimes in Lancashire Cotton Towns 1830–1870’, M.Litt, Lancaster, p.38.W.Vamplew (1988a) Pay up and Play the Game: Professional Sport in Britain 1875–1914, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p.7.J.Walton and R.Poole (1982) ‘The Lancashire Wakes in the nineteenth century’, in Storch, Culture and Custom, pp.100–102.J.Walvin, Leisure and Society, pp.2–4.10Cunningham, Industrial Revolution, pp.59–61.M.Judd (1983) ‘Popular culture and the London Fairs’, in J.Walton and J.Walvin, Leisure in Britain, Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp.12–13.D.Oddy (1990), ‘Food, drink and nutrition’, in Thompson, CSH, ii, p.256.Reid, ‘Folk football’, p.230.E.P.Thompson (1970) The28Beginnings of a Commercial Sporting Culture in BritainMaking of the English Working Class, London: Victor Gollancz, p.451.11Golby and Purdue, Civilization, pp.102, 267.R.Hine (1929) The History of Hitchin, London: Allen and Unwin, p.266.12E.Hopkins (1982) ‘Working hours and conditions during the Industrial Revolution: a reappraisal’, EcHR, 35:1, 65–6.D.A.Reid (1976) ‘The decline of Saint Monday 1766–1876’, Past and Present, 71, 82.13Golby and Purdue, Civilization, p.90.N.Tranter (1987a) ‘Popular sports and the industrial revolution in Scotland: the evidence of the Statistical Accounts’, IJHS, 4:1, 21–3, 33.14F.Botham and E.Hunt (1987) ‘Wages in the Industrial Revolution’, EcHR, 40, 398.15N.Crafts (1983) ‘British economic growth, 1700–1831: A review of the evidence’, EcHR, 36:2, 198.16Botham and Hunt, ‘Wages in the Industrial Revolution’, 383.P.Lindert and J.Williamson (1983) ‘English workers living standards during the Industrial revolution: A new look’, EcHR, 36:1, 24.17Brailsford, Sport, Time, p.47.18N.McKendrick, J.Brewer and J.H.Plumb (1982) The Birth of a Consumer Society: The Commercialization of Eighteenth Century England, London: Hutchinson, p.284.19While there is considerable evidence of commercial sporting activity in the period before 1790 the data are too unsystematic to be usefully quantified.There are two exceptions to this.Research on cricket suggests that while the game generally expanded throughout the eighteenth century, it suffered a decline during the Napoleonic wars.R.Bowen (1970) Cricket: A History of its Growth and Development Throughout the World, London: Eyre and Spottiswode, pp.79–80.There are detailed records for horse racing which show that it expanded during the eighteenth century.P.Borsay (1989) The English Urban Renaissance, Oxford: Clarendon, pp.173–95.The following contain some insight into organized sporting activity in the years before 1793: C.B.Andrews (1934) The Torrington Diaries, London: Methuen, i, pp.16, 100, 128, 208, 350; ii, pp.35, 45, 164; iii, pp.86, 116, 150, 329; iv, pp.65, 122–3.JJCSports.Box 2.Box 3.Box 7.M.Richardson (1841–46) Local Historian’s Table Book.London.Van Muyden (ed.) (1902) A Foreign View Of England in the Reign of George I and George II, London: John Murray, pp.217–18.20There are also some excellent indexes of Scottish newspapers from the period: A Local Index of the Dumfries and Galloway Standard and Advertiser and its predecessors over 200 years (1980), Dumfries.The Stirling Journal and Advertiser: A Local Index (1979), Stirling: University of Stirling.It is instructive that they add relatively little information that is not found in the various London-based sources that were used in this study.21Malcolmson offers a similar definition of sporting activity: ‘The importance of more intimate kinds of leisure should not be forgotten, but the sources themselves necessitate an account of recreations which highlight the holiday calendar and the more organised and visible forms of sport and pastimes’, Popular Recreations, p.16.However, he makes no attempt to quantify the amount of activity, and maintains that the volume of such events suffered a steady decline from 1750 until 1850.22Bell’s, 9 May 1841.23C.Aspin (1969) Lancashire: The First Industrial Society, Preston: Helmshaw, pp.35–6.24C.Emsley (1979) British Society and the French Wars 1793–1815, London: Macmillan, pp.29, 120–21, 149–52.J.Stevenson (1993) ‘Social aspects of the Industrial Revolution’, in P.O’Brien and R.Quinault (eds), The Industrial RevolutionA National Sporting Culture is Born29and British Society, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p.241.25P.O’Brien (1993) ‘Political preconditions for the industrial revolution’, in P.O’Brien and R.Quinault (eds), The Industrial Revolution and British Society, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.150–51.26SM May 1804, 80; Dec 1807, 113.27SM Sept 1793, 367; Aug 1794, 260–61, 282; April 1795, 54–5; May 1795, 94; July 1795, 223; Jan 1798, 176; Aug 1803, 303, 305; May 1806, 99; July 1809, 196; Aug 1810, 229; Jan 1811, 141–2; May 1811, 99, 115; May 1814, 94.J.Brand (1810) Observations on Popular Antiquities, Newcastle: J.Johnson, pp.vi, ix, criticized Catholicism for crowding the calendar with holidays, ‘nominally consecrated by saints’, but actually derived from ‘heathen’ origins.28Exchange Herald, 12 June 1821 [ Pobierz całość w formacie PDF ]

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