[ Pobierz całość w formacie PDF ]
.I wished to set an example and burnt them all. LetterCopyright 2001 The President and Fellows of Harvard CollegeExam Copy 268 Notes to Pages 47 52268of January 1780, in Corr., pp.245 246; and see Ian Simpson Ross, The Lifeof Adam Smith (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), chap.19.192.Marc Bloch, L trange dfaite (Paris: Gallimard, 1990), p.30.193.The characteristic of the  mechanical philosophy of the French with its political economy and its  science of government  was to provide  aneagle s-eye view, in place of painfully acquired knowledge of the needs andthe true circumstances of the country. Johann Gottfried von Herder, Aucheine Philosophie der Geschichte zur Bildung der Menschheit (1774), inSmtliche Werke, ed.B.Suphan (Berlin: Weidmann, 1891, rpt.1967), 5:536.194.TMS, p.135.195.TMS, p.195.196.Paine, The Rights of Man, 1:95 97.197.TMS, pp.233 234.198.John Stuart Mill,  On the Definition of Political Economy; and on theMethod of Investigation Proper to It (1836), in Collected Works (Toronto:University of Toronto Press, 1967), 4:321 323.199.Giacomo Leopardi,  Dialogo di Tristano e di un amico (1834), in Tutte leopere, 1:184.200.John Stuart Mill, Principles of Political Economy with Some of Their Applica-tions to Social Philosophy (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1965),p.752; idem, On Liberty (London: Penguin Books, 1974), pp.106, 125.2.Adam Smith and Conservative Economics1.A slightly shorter version of this chapter was published in the Economic His-tory Review, 45, 2 (1992), 74 96.2.Annual Register, 32 (1790), 212 213; Scots Magazine, 52 (1790), 363.Seealso John Rae, The Life of Adam Smith (1895) (New York: Augustus M.Kelley, 1965), pp.435 436; F.W.Hirst, Adam Smith (London: Macmillan,1904), p.234.Rae quotes a letter of August 20, 1790, from the penal re-former Sir Samuel Romilly at that time a fervent supporter of the Revolu-tion in which he compares the  little impression made by Smith s deathwith the earlier  panegyrics to Dr.Johnson:  Scarce any notice has beentaken of it. Samuel Romilly, Memoirs of the life of Sir Samuel Romilly (Lon-don: John Murray, 1840), 1:403.3. It is a matter of very natural curiosity to enquire in what manner Dr.adamsmith, who published such a laboured eulogium on the stoical end of DavidHume, closed his own life. The Times, August 4, 1790, p.2.The reference isto the letter by Smith, published in 1777 with The life of David Hume, ofwhich he wrote, in 1780, that it had  brought upon me ten times moreabuse than his attack, in the Wealth of Nations, on the commercial system ofBritain.Corr., p.251.4.The Times, August 16, 1790, p.4.Smith s system is said in the original edi-tion to be  most [sic] essentially different from that of Count Verri, whichCopyright 2001 The President and Fellows of Harvard CollegeExam Copy Notes to Page 53 269269seems to have been a misprint, corrected in the Gentleman s Magazine re-print later in 1790.5.Gentleman s Magazine, 60, pt.2 (July 1790), 673; also ibid., (August 1790),761 762.6.Gazette Nationale, ou Le Moniteur Universel, August 24, 1790, p.976; Oc-tober 25, 1790, p.1232; May 26, 1791, p.605.Alengry, in his study ofCondorcet, surmises that the notes were never written.Franck Alengry, Con-dorcet guide de la Rvolution franaise (Paris: Giard and Brire, 1904), pp.20, 693; see also Eugne Daire,  Notice sur Condorcet, in Mlangesd conomie politique, ed.Daire (Paris: Guillaumin, 1847), 1:458, n.2;Gilbert Faccarello,  Presentation, in Condorcet mathmaticien, conomiste,philosophe, homme politique, ed.Pierre Crpel and Christian Gilain (Paris:Minerve, 1989), pp.123 125.7.Bibliothque de l homme public; ou analyse raisonne des principaux ouvragesfranois et trangers, ed.M.de Condorcet, M.de Peysonel, M.Le Chapelier(Paris: Buisson, 1790), 3:108.Smith appears in the series after Aristotle butbefore Plato.The point of the library was  as far as it will be possible, to putthe science of government and of administration within the reach of every-one, since,  according to the new constitution, there is no one who cannotbe called to discuss and to defend the interests of their canton, their province,and even of the entire kingdom. Political economy was therefore of the firstimportance:  This study will become that of all good spirits (1:iv vi).InSpain, Condorcet s summary was apparently considered less subversive (in1792) than Smith s own work: a translation was published with Condorcet sname but without Smith s, and with a note by the translator explaining thatwhile the original author sometimes made regrettably  improper applicationsof his theories, the abridgement offered  all the advantages without theinconveniences. Ernest Lluch,  Condorcet et la diffusion de la Richesse desnations en Espagne, in Crpel and Gilain, Condorcet, p.192.8. Both man s moral nature, and his mental processes, were the subject ofmuch general intellectual inquiry, and some controversy, in the middle of thecentury; of bitter partisan strife in the French Revolutionary period.Writers of the 1790s looked back on their predecessors of the earlier genera-tion, and saw subversion in work that in its day was at most mildly reformist.Marilyn Butler, Jane Austen and the War of Ideas (Oxford: Clarendon Press,1987), pp.7 8.9.Letter to Lord Craig of February 20, 1794, in The Collected Works of DugaldStewart, ed.Sir W.Hamilton (Edinburgh: Thomas Constable, 1858),10:lxxiii.10. Had Mr.Burke possessed talents similar to the author of  On the Wealth ofNations, he would have comprehended all the parts which enter into, and byassemblage, form a constitution. Thomas Paine, The Rights of Man, pt.1(1791) (London: J.M.Dent, 1958), p.53.11.Mary Wollstonecraft, Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) (London:Copyright 2001 The President and Fellows of Harvard CollegeExam Copy 270 Notes to Pages 53 54270Penguin Books, 1982), pp.148 150, 252; Vindication of the Rights of Men,in The Works of Wollstonecraft, ed.Janet Todd and Marilyn Butler (London:Chatto & Pickering, 1989), 5:24 25.See TMS, pp.61 62, 256.12.James Mackintosh, Vindiciae Gallicae: Defence of the French Revolution andits English admirers, against the accusations of the Right Honourable EdmundBurke (London: G.G.J.and J.Robinson, 1791), p.30.13.Elie Halvy, La formation du radicalisme philosophique, vol.2, L volution dela doctrine utilitaire de 1789 1815 (1901) (Paris: Presses Universitaires deFrance, 1995), p.75; see also note 82 below on Halvy s view of Smith andBurke.14.[T.Archard], Suppression of the French nobility vindicated, to which is added acomprehensive view of Dr.Smith s system (London: J.Debrett, 1792), p.69.15.Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) (London:Penguin Books, 1982), pp.189, 197, 351; see also J.G.A.Pocock,  ThePolitical Economy of Burke s Analysis of the French Revolution, in Virtue,Commerce, and History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985),p.199.16.Both words were little more than general terms of abuse; see, for example,Burke, Reflections, pp.213 214, 299 300.Dugald Stewart s Victorian biog-rapher could thus write that  in no part of his political writings did Stewartshow  higher moral courage than in his estimate of the doctrines of theFrench Economists.at a time when their general doctrines were subjectedin this country to the indiscriminating obloquy of an alleged revolutionarytendency [ Pobierz całość w formacie PDF ]