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.114Cf.Archdale King, op.cit., pp 276-374.115The use of the word Breviary here is anachronistic, for the books for the Office were notunified into a Breviary in all places.Such a book, containing everything needed for therecitation of the Office, like that for the Mass, was an invention of the Mendicant Orders forthe convenience of itinerant clerics.Cf.section 2.1.1.of this present work.116Denis Crouan, Histoire du Missel Romain, Paris 1988, P 41.These liturgies had to have acustom of more than two hundred years. 33Agnus Dei and the Communion117.To these moments were added prayers forthe incensing of the altar and oblata, at the kissing of the altar before theIntroit, before the Gospel, and at the ablutions.These prayers were the most variable in the different Uses within the Romanrite.In the Sarum Missal, the prayers of preparation are very long, includingmany versicles and responses, whilst in the contemporary monastic rites,including that of the Dominicans, they were very brief or virtually non-existent118.In the majority of rites, the Iudica me (Ps.42) figured with itsantiphon: Introibo ad altare Dei: ad Deum qui ltificat iuventutem meam.It wasalmost invariably followed by apologetic prayers119, which became apenitential rite with a form of public confession of sins and absolution.Theoffertory prayers in the late medieval rites were not standard in every missal,and the communion prayers were frequently longer than in the 1570 RomanMissal.In these prayers, it is no longer we but I which predominates.They are privateprayers for the edification of the priest.Most prayers were said aloudstanding upright manibus extensis, but these were said submissa voce withhands crossed over the breast or joined, bowing over the altar120.There wascertainly no harm in such a type of prayer, though it tended to make of theMass an individual devotion for the priests: it was a sign of an age of ahealthy repentance of sin, when auricular confession was not yet generalised.Thus, these prayers were sharply reduced with the spread of privateconfession.In many medieval rites, the apologetic prayers were much moreGallican in flavour, and as we have already seen, the communion prayers inthe Sarum Mass bear considerable resemblance with those of the Hispanicrites.Most of this was to be swept away by all the sixteenth century reforms:Catholic, protestant and Anglican.117Cuming, op.cit., p 18:  In the priest s prayers the predominant thought is that the communicantwill be cleansed from all his sins by receiving the sacrament, a medieval departure from the primitiveconception of the Eucharist as a thanksgiving for benefits already received.118Cf.Archdale King, Liturgies of the Religious Orders, London 1955, pp 325-395.119Jungmann, op.cit., I, p 78-80.An Apologia is a private prayer said submissa voce, a personalavowal of guilt and unworthiness on the part of the celebrant, usually of considerable length.It is an acknowledgment of guilt in a spirit of regret.Such apologi are usually conjoined to aprayer begging the mercy of God.They appear in their earliest forms in the Franco-Germanliturgies, whilst the Roman liturgy is much more sober, and have their parallels in the orientalliturgies.The best examples of these in the Roman liturgy are the Confiteor and the Oratio S.Ambrosii in the Prparatio Miss.120Ibid., pp 78-80.According to Jungmann: This usage, with its symbolism of submissiveness, ofthe resignation of one s own power to a higher one, is traced back to Teutonic culture.It is akin to thecustom by which a vassel or liegeman vowed homage and fealty by placing his hand in that of his lord.This custom is expressed in the Roman rite of ordination, where the ordinand makes promiseof obedience to his Bishop. 34THE BACKGROUND OF THE MISSAL OF PIUS VAfter the imperfect attempts of the Franciscans to spread a relatively pureform of the Roman Mass liturgy (mixed with Nordic usages) throughoutChristendom, the turn came for the liturgists of the Renaissance to pave theway for the work of the Council of Trent and the post-conciliar Commission.The Ordo Miss of John Burchard and the Pontifical of PatriziThe most important pre-Tridentine stage in the development of liturgicalcodification was the work of John Burchard (c.1450-1506).This was to be themost important single source for the elaboration of the Missal under Pius V.The rubrics121 were more in need of codification than the body of liturgicaltexts.John Burchard was born at Strasbourg towards 1450 and becamePontifical Master of Ceremonies in 1483.Having served Sixtus IV, InnocentVIII and Alexander VI in this function, he became Bishop of Citt del Castelloand Orta in 1503.Burchard played an important role in the elaboration of theRoman Pontifical of Augustine Patrizi, published in 1485122.Burchardparticipated also in the production of the Cremoniale Romanum of Patrizi,published in 1516123 [ Pobierz całość w formacie PDF ]