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.Withcomplete insight, he realized,  This is Shiva  (3585 3586).80 Tirumular returnedto Avadudurai and sat focused on Shiva.He lived there for 3,000 years, each yearcomposing a single verse.To remove the poison of being born in bodies of flesh, and so that peopleof the earth will attain liberation, he lived happily on this earth for three 64 recipes for immortalitythousand years.Each year he adorned the Tamil 3000 with a singleverse, composing a garland of holy verses (tirumantira mlai) with thefour flowers that begin with wisdom.81 This garland of truth considersthe one who wears the boar s tusk, the supreme god, as  the only one. 82By the benevolence of the one whose head is adorned with the moon,he reached Mount Kailasa, never to be separated again from the feet ofShiva.(3589 90) 83The story ends where it began, on the slopes of Mount Kailasa in the north.Like the episodes of other nyanmr of the Periya Pur am , the story ofTirumular is a vehicle to portray the strength of his devotion and to extol the great-ness of Shiva, not to showcase Tirumular s extraordinary powers or knowledge.Although the text does attribute to Tirumular the attainment of the siddhis, it refersto him as a yogi, not a siddhar.The characterization of Tirumular as rendering inTamil the truths of the Sanskrit gamas is consistent with the Tirumantiram, asis Tirumular s residence in both the northern and southern regions.The PeriyaPuram , however, presents a coherent narrative that clearly depicts the asceticas a non-Tamil speaker, only gaining facility in Tamil through his occupation ofthe body of the herdsman.His possession of this body for an extended period oftime is something thrust upon him by Shiva, and although he lives happily on theearth for three thousand years, by Shiva s grace he eventually leaves the Tamil landand resides at the feet of Shiva on Mount Kailasa.The text s account of the lifeof Tirumular clearly idealizes Kailasa to the north as the home of Shiva, not thesouthern Tamil land.ContemporaryNarrativesThe site of Tirumular s residence in the Periya Puram, Avadudurai, is now hometo one of the most influential Shaiva monasteries in south India, ThiruvavaduduraiAdinam.On the grounds of the monastery and its adjacent temple is an imageof Tirumular, marking the place where, another narrative tradition holds, he satin meditation for 3,000 years, emerging once every year to compose a verse ofthe Tirumantiram.The Thiruvavadudurai monastery publishes literature on theTirumantiram meant for a popular audience, such as Tirumantira Mun nurai (Introduction to Tirumantiram), and Tirumantiram Vaittiyappakuti (The medicalportion of the Tirumantiram), a compilation of verses from the Tirumantiram hav-ing some reference to the body and health.84 The monastery dates from the sixteenthcentury, long after Tirumular is said to have lived.85 Kathleen Iva Koppedrayer hasnoted that the monastery does not include Tirumular in its lineage.86 Even so, thepreface of the Introduction to Tirumantiram suggests a connection by stressing the the miraculous origins of siddha medicine 65history of siddhars in Thiruvavadudurai, noting that the town itself is sometimescalled  the city of 90 million siddhars. 87 The preface highlights the claim thatthe heads of the monastery are in  the Kailasa lineage, in Nandi s order, furthercementing the link to Tirumular.These works by the monastery for the most part downplay Tirumular as a sid-dhar, drawing rather from the Periya Puram narrative in considering him oneof the sixty-three nyanmr.Desikar recounts in English the story of Tirumular,expanding on narrative elements of the Periya Pur am such as Tirumular sresidence at Thiruvavadudurai,  where he sat under a Bodhi tree and passedinto a state of deep contemplation.Once a year he woke up, and each time hecomposed a stanza containing the cream of his spiritual experiences during theyear. 88 Desikar s interpretation of the narrative is fascinating.First, he stressesthat Tirumular took on the body of a shepherd in order to demonstrate to theworld that  any person be he of high or low birth, can see to attain Shivananda(Shiva s bliss), reading an egalitarian message into the narrative that is consis-tent with modern portrayals of the siddhars as opponents of caste.89 Second, heposits that Tirumular traveled from Mt [ Pobierz całość w formacie PDF ]