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.Joyce argued in NationalSocialism Now that Hitler was a great German patriot but that anEnglish national socialism was needed for this country.28 After he24PRO HO 144/21382/298.25PRO HO 144/22454/85 6.26PRO HO 144/22454/87.27PRO HO 144/22454/109, PRO HO 283/3.28W.Joyce, National Socialism Now (London, 1937), p.15. THE HITLER FAN CLUB141fled to Germany in July 1939 he wrote that England was nowmorally decaying and in terminal political decline and that onlyHitler s Germany could provide the leadership and drive for thereconstruction of Europe.29 His defeatist propaganda as Lord HawHaw on Radio Hamburg was to provide entertainment and analternative source of information for many during the phoney warperiod, but once the war started in earnest he was to be perceivedas more sinister than amusing.30Yet before his decision to replace Mosley with Hitler, Joyce hadbeen involved with Beckett in an attempt to broaden the influenceof national socialism through an alliance with Lord Lymington spseudo-left-wing peace organizations.The formation of the BritishCouncil against European Commitments at the height of theCzechoslovakia crisis directly linked the NSL with Lymington sEnglish Array.Although Joyce soon left, Beckett became deeplyinvolved with Lymington and his New Pioneer magazine in 1939.Together with A.K.Chesterton, H.T.Mills, Lymington and GeorgeLane-Fox Pitt Rivers, this group published a mixture of pro-German, anti-semitic and economic reform articles.Lymington fol-lowed the romantic occultist and back-to-the-land beliefs of RolfGardiner s native volkish movement, English Mistery, and PittRivers was a colonial administrator and anthropologist who wasstrongly influenced by eugenics and a belief in the conspiracytheory of history.31In the summer of 1939 Beckett left to form a new political move-ment, the British People s Party (BPP) with Lord Tavistock (laterthe Duke of Bedford), Ben Greene and John Scanlon.Greene,Beckett and Scanlon were all ex-members of the ILP.and the lattertwo were ex-followers of Mosley.Together with Tavistock s com-mitment to Social Credit, the new party was dedicated to the causeof social reform at home and peace abroad.32 Its ideas were similarto those of the New Pioneer group but had a more radical tinge.Its signifiance was that it provided an alternative focus for the29Idem, Twilight over England (Metairie, n.d.), pp.129 42.30Survey of broadcasts from Hamburg, December 1939 BBC , J.W.Hall (ed.), Trial ofWilliam Joyce (London, 1946), pp.302 7; File 65, p.2;  Public and private opinion onHaw Haw Mar.1940, 29, Mass Observation File Reports.31R.Griffiths, Fellow Travellers, pp.319 29.32Ibid., pp.351 3. THE HITLER FAN CLUB142peace movement to that given by Mosley.Even though some left-wing opponents could tar it with the same fascist brush, the pres-ence of Beckett as Tavistock s right-hand man meant that potentialcollaboration between the two movements would always be dif-ficult, for Beckett still felt bitter hostility for Mosley since beingmade redundant from the BUF in 1937.Of all the groups on the fascist fringe of British politics it wasonly Mosley s BUF that developed the coherent and systematic viewson foreign policy which Skidelsky has seen as providing a genuinelycredible alternative to government attitudes towards the dictators inthe 1930s.Mosley argued that national socialism and fascism wereessentially nationalist doctrines whose substance differed morewidely between nations than international creeds in the past.33 TheBUF s policy was born of British inspiration and reflected her com-mitments alone, and was governed by the necessity of protectingBritain s vital interests in her Empire.Because Britain had world-wide imperial duties her power depended on protecting hergeographically diffuse territories so it was vital for Britain to be onfriendly terms with other potential rivals.She should no longerinterfere in quarrels which did not clash with her vital interests,namely the development of the Empire.Mosley was particularly criti-cal of the moral and international approach to foreign affairs of thedominant liberal ethos, and the British obsession with the balanceof power in Europe, which he saw as irrelevant to her strategicrequirements.He told the Advisory Committee in 1940 that he didnot actively oppose the fact that Germany occupied Czechoslovakia,Poland, Austria, Belgium, Holland and France,34 because Europeanpolitics were not Britain s vital interest.According to Mosley the fascist powers, namely Germany, Italyand Japan, should be encouraged to expand.German and Italianexpansion, particularly in eastern Europe, were of no interest toBritain and their growing power would lead eventually to the col-lapse of the USSR, particularly if it was encircled through an alli-ance with Japan.35 Japan should be encouraged to expand innorthern China, thus avoiding a conflict with Britain s Far Easterninterests.33O.Mosley, Tomorrow We Live (London, 1938), p.2.34PRO HO 283/14/83 4.35O.Mosley,  The world alternative , Fascist Quarterly, 2, 3 (July 1936), pp.377 95. THE HITLER FAN CLUB143Mosley argued that these nations with their disparate interestshad no incompatible problems which would lead to conflictbetween them.Hitler viewed Britain as a potential ally and weshould encourage good relations by offering to return to Germanythe mandated territories given to us at Versailles.Even if his assessment of relations between fascist powers shouldprove optimistic, Mosley declared, the insurance policy of athoroughgoing rearmament would deter any potential aggressorfrom attacking the British Empire [ Pobierz całość w formacie PDF ]