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.According to the record of the Company's properties, the Companywas operating six refining plants, one located in New Jersey; one in Nebraska; one in California; one inIllinois; one in Maryland, and one in Washington.The Company owned 14 lead smelters and 11 copper The American Empire, by Scott Nearing 63smelters, located as follows: Colorado, 4; Utah, 2; Texas, 2; Arizona, 2; New Jersey, 2; Montana, 1;Washington, 1; Nebraska, 1; California, 1; Illinois, 1; Chile, 2; Mexico, 6.Among these 25 plants a third islocated outside of the United States.These are but two examples.The rubber, oil, tobacco and sugar interests have pursued a similarpolicy--extending their organization in such a way as to utilize foreign resources as a source for the rawmaterials that are destined to be manufactured in the United States.8.Manufacturing and Marketing AbroadThe Bethlehem Steel Corporation and the American Smelting and Refining Company go outside of the UnitedStates for the resources upon which their industries depend.Their fabricating industries are carried on insideof the country.There are a number of the great industries of the country that have gone outside of the UnitedStates to do their manufacturing and to organize the marketing of their products.The International Harvester Company has built a worldwide organization.It manufactures harvestingmachinery, farm implements, gasoline engines, tractors, wagons and separators at Springfield, Ohio; RockFalls, Ill.; Chicago, Ill.; Auburn, New York; Akron, Ohio; Milwaukee, Wisc., and West Pullman, Ill.It hasiron mines, coal mines and steel plants operated by the Wisconsin Steel Company.It has three twine mills andfour railways.Foreign plants and branches are listed as follows: Norrkoping, Sweden; Copenhagen, Denmark;Christiania, Norway; Paris, France; Croix, France; Berlin, Germany; Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Zurich,Switzerland; Vienna, Austria; Lubertzy, Russia; Neuss, Germany; Melbourne, Australia; London, England;Christ Church, New Zealand.One of the greatest industrial empires in the world is the Standard Oil Properties.It is not possible to go intodetail with regard to their operations.Space will admit of a brief comment upon one of the constituent parts or"states" of the empire--The Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.With a capital stock of $100,000,000, thisCompany, from the dissolution of the Standard Oil Company, December 15, 1911, to June 15, 1918, a periodof six and a half years, paid dividends of $174,058,932.The company describes itself as "a manufacturing enterprise with a large foreign business.The company drillsoil wells, pumps them, refines the crude oil into many forms and sells the product--mostly abroad." (TheLamp, May, 1918.) The properties of the Company are thus listed:1.The Company has 13 refineries, seven of them in New Jersey, Maryland, Oklahoma, Louisiana and WestVirginia.Four of the remaining refineries are located in Canada, one is in Mexico and one in Peru.2.Pipeline properties in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Maryland.3.A fleet of 54 ocean-going tank steamers with a capacity of 486,480 dead weight tons.(This is about two percent of the total ocean-going tonnage of the world.)4.Can and case factories, barrel factories, canning plants, glue factories and pipe shops.5.Through its subsidiary corporations, the Company controls:a.Oil wells in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Texas,California, Peru and Mexico.In connection with many of these properties refineries are operated.b.One subsidiary has 550 marketing stations in Canada.Others market in various parts of the United States;in the West Indies; in Central and South America; in Germany, Austria, Roumania, the Netherlands, France,Denmark and Italy. The American Empire, by Scott Nearing 64The Standard Oil Company of New Jersey comprises only one part--though a very successful part--of theStandard Oil Group of industries.It is one industrial state in a great industrial empire.Foreign resources offer opportunities to the exploiter.Foreign markets beckon.Both calls have been heededby the American business interests that are busy building the international machinery of businessorganization.9.International Business and FinanceThe steel, smelting, oil, sugar, tobacco, and harvester interests are confined to relatively narrow lines.In theirwake have followed general business, and above all, financial activities.The American International Corporation was described by its vice-president (Mr.Connick) before a SenateCommittee on March 1, 1918."Until the Russian situation became too acute, they had offices in Petrograd,London, Paris, Rome, Mexico City.They sent commissions and agents and business men to South America topromote trade.They were negotiating contracts for a thousand miles of railroad in China.They werepractically rebuilding, you might say, the Grand Canal in China.They had acquired the Pacific Mail.Theythen bought the New York Shipbuilding Corporation to provide ships for their shipping interests."By 1919 (New York Times, Oct.31, 1919) the Company had acquired Carter Macy & Co., and the Rosin andTurpentine Export Co., and was interested in the International Mercantile Marine and the United FruitCompanies.Another illustration of the same kind of general foreign business appeared in the form of an advertisementinserted on the financial page of the New York Times (July 10, 1919) by three leading financial firms, whichcalled attention to a $3,000,000 note issue of the Haytian American Corporation "Incorporated under the lawsof the State of New York, owning and operating sugar, railroad, wharf and public utility companies in theRepublic of Hayti." Further, the advertisers note: "The diversity of the Company's operations assures stabilityof earnings."American manufacturers, traders and industrial empire builders have not gone alone into the foreign field.Thebankers have accompanied them.Several of the great financial institutions of the country are advertising their foreign connections.The Guaranty Trust Company (New York Times, Jan.10, 1919) advertises under the caption "Direct ForeignBanking Facilities" offering "a direct and comprehensive banking service for trade with all countries." Theseconnections include:1.Branches in London and Paris, which are designated United States depositories."They are Americaninstitutions conducted on American lines, and are especially well equipped to render banking servicethroughout Europe." There are additional branches in Liverpool and Brussels.The Company also has directconnections in Italy and Spain, and representatives in the Scandinavian countries.2."Direct connections with the leading financial institutions in Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, and Brazil." Aspecial representative in Buenos Ayres."Through our affiliation with the Mercantile Bank of the Americasand its connections, we cover Peru, Northern Brazil, Columbia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Nicaragua, Honduras,Guatemala, and other South and Central American countries."3."Through the American Mercantile Bank of Cuba, at Havana, we cover direct Cuba and the West Indies."4."Direct banking and merchant service throughout British India," together with correspondents in the East The American Empire, by Scott Nearing 65Indies and the Straits Settlements.5 [ Pobierz całość w formacie PDF ]