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.This festival was conducted with royal style that had been evident in a major Buddhist holiday earlier, indicating that there was continuity in ceremony and celebration even if the religious meaning of the particular holiday had changed.The birthday of the Prophet does not appear to have been as popular at this time as it was to become later, although some people did celebrate the occasion.On Java, Sultan Agung of Mataram made this an important event, requiring all important administrators to be in the capital on that day, probably bringing them under the ruler’s influence.There was a large public fair as well.2Fed_1-88 10/29/06 10:12 AM Page 7474A Hybrid Muslim Culture (1300–1800)cId al-cAdha was celebrated at most royal courts.Under the Mataram rulers this became an important holiday that involved a court ceremony and a public procession.At Aceh, particularly during the time of Iskandar Muda, it was celebrated with an elaborate festival, a prayer at the palace mosque, and a ceremony involving thousands of retainers, guards, officials, and service people.Afterward there was a ritual slaughtering of oxen and carabao, as called for in the guidelines of Islamic jurisprudence.Cultural DevelopmentUrban Design and ArchitectureThe layout of buildings and streets had been important in the preceding era when such arrangements were regarded as having sacred significance; some of that attitude seems to have continued, at least in the Javanese area.But the Malay cities, with their prominent ports, apparently arranged some things for utilitarian purposes.City quarters were often designated for, or perhaps came to be recognized as primarily inhabited by certain foreign groups, so there might be an Indian quarter, a Javanese quarter, and a Chinese quarter, for example.Likewise storage facilities, custom offices, and the harbormaster’s place of business had to be at a central location; and finally, market areas had to be convenient for their users and of reasonable size.These considerations were generally apparent at Samudera-Pasai and at Melaka.A historical description of Melaka revealed the most accomplished of these urban arrangements: “The original population and the foreign traders from overseas all lived in separate residential districts.North of the.river lay Upeh, the big commercial quarter, itself consisting of two separate districts, in one of which lived people who came from northwestern Asia, and in the other people from the East.Since most of the merchants also had accommodation for selling their wares in front of their houses, the two districts of Upeh and Ilir, seen from the sea, stretched out along the coast like one long bazaar.As of old the Malay fisherfolk were housed in the district of Sabok in the marshy lands along the river.The streets were wide, but in this town with its predominately wooden houses.the danger of fire was ever present.”31Architectural attainment was obvious in central Java.In 1746 Pakubuwana II transferred the Mataram capital from Kartasura to the the village of Sala, which he renamed Surakarta, and an entire new palace complex was constructed there between that year and 1790.The new palace was modeled after the mythical kingdom of Kahendran as portrayed in Vishnuite mythology.The new palace layout began with the planting of sacred wringin trees in the northern and southern assembly areas.When it was finished, the Kraton Kasunanan was enclosed by a great wall, six meters high and measuring 1,000 x 1,800 meters on the sides of the rectangle.It enclosed several residential villages inhabited by royal servants and admin-2Fed_1-88 10/29/06 10:12 AM Page 75The Muslim Community75istrators.Alongside the central building and courtyard complex was the royal palladium—a building holding the royal paraphernalia, heirlooms, and regalia—considered to be the repository of the symbols of power of the kingdom.Among them were “an ornamental bed: a set of statues of the legendary goddesses of Javanese mythology Dewi Sri and Dewi Sadana; the eternal flame of Ki Agung Sela; the sacred flower that bloomed as long as the king possessed the right to rule; the state regalia; and the symbols of state [ Pobierz całość w formacie PDF ]