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., 133 Hollingsworth, J.Rogers, 300ngrindstone industry, 30 Holyoke, Massachusetts, 244gross national product, 105 homo economicus, 22ground and refined graphite industry, 30 Hope of Amsterdam, 130growth, industrial, relation to incorpora- horizontal integration, 240, 284tion, 27 Horn, Norbert, 137guilds, 46 Horse Shoe plug tobacco, 232Gunpowder Manufacturers Association, Horwitz, Morton J., 147, 296n184 Hottinguer of Paris, 130Gunpowder Trade Association of the United Hounshell, David A., 121, 264States, Articles of Association, 189 household generators, 263Howe, Elias, 188Hamilton, Alexander, 49, 50, 66, 72 Howell, T.P., 127Hamilton Manufacturing Society, 158 Hudson Bay Company, 131hammock industry, 30 Hudson River, 50Haney, Lewis, 153 Hughes Aircraft, 20, 255, 288nHannah, Leslie, 159, 160 Hughes, Howard, 288nHarrison, Charles, 209 Hurst, J.Willard, 51, 58, 75, 159 I N D E X 327IBM, 279, 283 process of, 252, 253, 265, 291nIdaho, 218 watershed period, 254ideology, 65, 71, 136 institutions, xiv, 3, 4 16, 19 21, 26, 41, 77,antistatist, 71 74 85, 97, 103, 105, 114 143, 148, 154, 174,democratic, 59, 73, 74, 85, 260 220, 243, 262, 265 273of efficiency, 265 as categories and practices, 14individualism, 54, 93, 94, 273 as categories and typifications, 14, 15, 115of inevitability, 18, 20, 58 context for later behavior, 274 276Keynesian, 51 as context for subsequent behavior, 269,laissez-faire, 51, 57 270liberalism, 54 as cultural categories, 15 corporate, 17,market, 176, 177 18, 22, 38, 78, 79, 103, 115 143, 164,mercantilist, 51 165, 198, 209, 275monopoly, 180, 229, 230, 233, 238, defined by economists, 119245, 247 defined by sociologists, 120republican, 53, 131 defined, 14 16, 115, 269, 270utilitarian, 54 existing forms as templates for new, 47Illinois, 74, 157, 163, 191, 245, 295n finance, 42, 80, 99 101Illinois Central Railroad, 133 historical construction, 15, 45, 275, 276illuminating industry, 289n innovation, 42immigration, 121 logic and strategies, 116import-export trade, 124 and markets, 119, 120in personem legal doctrine, 47 as matter of degree, 116, 117in rem legal doctrine, 47 political, 71, 72incorporation, 249 and power, 15, 16, 19, 117, 120, 255,change in the meaning of, 78 259, 265 276federal, 50 and property, 16, 19, 222general, 17, 48, 50, 53, 64, 70, 72, 73 railroads, 78, 80, 82, 103relationship among industries, 25 social construction, 140, 266, 267simultaneous adoption, 252 as social relationships, 140small firms, 197 as taken-for-granted practices, 20, 115,special, 48, 53, 70 116, 129, 140, 255, 275, 276variation among industries, 21 40 institutions for the aged, disabled, andvariation among states mentally unfit, 48incorporation rate, operationalized 27 Insull, Samuel, 42Indiana, 245 insurance industry, 48, 49, 105, 124, 133,individualism, See ideology, individualism 272industrialization, 127, 180 integrationindustry horizontal, 240, 284as socially constructed, 288n vertical, 7, 206, 214, 216, 218, 239, 252,as a technological and market category, 25 263, 284, 298nas unit of analysis, 25, 26 intercorporate relations, 145, 146, 148 154,inevitability, 71, 84, 85, 260, 277, 278, 280, 154, 155286.See also ideology, of inevitability.intercorporate stock ownership, 82, 148Ingraham, Judge, 299n 155, 164 166, 168, 172, 174, 175, 199,innovation, 117, 263, 268 201, 262, 278, 295ninstitutional theory, xiv, 19, 20, 37, 79, 112, interests, 9, 177, 180, 202, 219, 263, 267,115, 131, 136, 221, 274 276 271, 274, 300nadaptive diffusion, 23, 24 embeddedness of, 275economics, 7, 115, 119, 120, 269, 270 rational calculation of, 112vs.functionalism, 256 relationship to production, 79sociological, 115, 116, 119, 120 sectional, 59institutionalization, 37, 70, 223, 294n interlocking directorates, 54, 82, 112, 155,mimetic diffusion, 23, 24 174, 270, 296n 328 I N D E XInternational Harvester Company, 18, 104, Kingston, New York, 236272 Kirkland, Edward C., 86International Paper Company, 222, 239, Kiskeminitas River, 58240 242, 245, 248, 253, 274 Kocka, Jurgen, 137investment, foreign.See capital, foreign.Kuhn Loeb & Company, 217investors, 262, 266, 268, 272invisible hand, 7, 8, 26, 135, 176, 177, 182, labor legislation, 53183, 210, 224, 255 labor movement, 53, 229.See also class,Iron Age, 189, 298n working.iron industry, 10, 30, 103, 152, 168, 169, laissez-faire, 12, 51, 55, 57, 64 66, 73, 74,271, 289n 84, 92 94, 198, 121, 213, 256, 284British, 128 Lake Erie, 50, 62isomorphism lamp black industry, 30coercive, 135 Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 92institutional, 81, 135, 142, 256 land, 251mimetic, 135 ceded to railroads, 96normative, 135 land companies, 43, 44, 87structural, 112, 284 lapidary industry, 30Italy, 264, 284 Larcom, Russell Carpenter, 296nLarson, Henrietta M., 131J.& W.Seligman & Company, 127, 130 Latrobe, Benjamin, 97J.G.Butler Tobacco Company, 231 law, 11, 24, 137, 138, 144 175, 178, 184,J.P.Morgan Company, 105 269, 274, 283, 294n, 295n, 296n.See alsoJ.S.Morgan & Company, 125 antitrust law; common law.Jackson, Andrew, 50, 73, 212 boards of directors 154 158, 164, 171Jacobstein, Meyer, 226 173, 175.See also boards of directors.Jahnestock & Company, 124 commercial, 284James, John A., 251, 294n consequences of for incorporation rate,Jamestown Company, 131 164 172Jay Cooke & Company, 128, 130 constitutional, 295nJefferson, Thomas, 45 define corporation, 257Jenks, Jeremiah W [ Pobierz całość w formacie PDF ]

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